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Nirupama Dutt comes back impressed after visiting a college which is an exceptional experiment in education for rural girls in a state where female foeticide is rampant and sex ratio lowest in the country

Harpreet Kaur, 18, of Udowal village in Punjab's Gurdaspur district, first heard of the Baba Aya Singh Rearki College at Tugalwala from her cousin. Recalls Harpreet, "My cousin who studied here would tell me stories of the happy and simple life there and of the great values learnt through education. So I longed to go there."

Harpreet eventually joined the school after her matriculation and is currently doing her Bachelor's degree. "I would like to stay on here as a teacher after doing my BA and then do my Masters in English Literature," says the enthusiastic student, who is also the secretary of her class.

The college is an exceptional experiment in education for rural girls in the districts of Gurdaspur and Amritsar, which adjoins the border with Pakistan.

The college, which functions as a trust, dates back to 1934 when a social worker called Baba Aya Singh established a small 'putri pathshala' (girls' school) at Tugalwala. He also set up the SKD High School in 1939. The college, however, aptly began functioning in 1975 — the International Year of Women.

Principal Swaran Singh Virk, 64, recalls the early challenges the college faced in a society reluctant to grant its daughters an education. "After campaigning from village to village on the importance of education for girls, I was promised 34 students. Twenty backed out and so we started with a batch of 14. Today, the school has the requisite number of teachers and is affiliated to the Punjab School Education Board. The college students appear privately for their graduation and post-graduation examinations. Altogether there are around 3,500 girls — boarders and day scholars — who are enrolled from Class VI to the Masters' level."

Self-sustaining model Interestingly, the tuition fee is only Rs 800 a year. Boarding and lodging comes for an annual fee of Rs 5,500. In the absence of any grants, the college displays excellent management of limited means and innovative self-sustaining measures. Homespun rugs, or 'durries', are used to seat the students. Desks and benches are used only for the examinations. The college has six teachers, who teach the senior classes. The remaining classes are taken by senior students through the 'each one, teach one' approach. This not only cuts down the cost of hiring another teacher, but also inculcates a sense of responsibility and confidence in the 'student lecturer'.

Virk explains, "We would rather do without aid. We save on electricity by using solar lighting. We have no fuel bills as we have our own bio-gas plant." All pupils have been taught the dignity of labour and the advantages of self-help: everything from cleaning the campus to cooking meals in batches of 12 to tending to the kitchen garden is managed by the students.

Visit Tugalwala and you can spot hundreds of young women dressed in their white uniforms, finding no task too hard to handle. The tall gates of the institution is 'wo-manned' by two students, who note down the names and addresses of the visitors. One group of girls is busy preparing the midday meal. Sukhmeet Kaur, 18, a BA Final student and secretary of her class, elaborates, "We are having curry for lunch. The girls decide the menu by consensus. We use most of the vegetables and grain grown here on the eight-acre school farm."

The girls are provided with wholesome meals and their day begins with a full glass of fresh buffalo milk — from the in-house dairy — boiled with some tea leaves.

The high standards of excellence extend to the classrooms, too. The college is proud of its unblemished record when it comes to examinations, as there has not been a single case of copying. Harsharan Singh, an examiner, explains, "The examiners and invigilators are posted here but are required to do nothing more than hand out the papers." The school has a cash prize of Rs 21,000 for an examiner who can spot a case of copying. The award goes unclaimed every year. However, the real reward for the school is the near 100-per cent pass rate, with at least 50 per cent of these students getting first divisions.

It's now afternoon, and the students are all over the campus — playing 'kho-kho', merrily running around, or singing folk songs. Some practice for the various inter-class music, painting and public speaking competitions; others are busy making hand-made charts and invitations for the various events.

The campus seems to exude a tremendous sense of confidence and happiness, and all the students — whether they are boarders or day scholars who bus down to school every day from their village or town — appear to participate wholeheartedly in school activities. Reveals Sukhmeet Kaur Baupuria, 18, a B.A. Final student, "Recently Manpreet Kaur, a student of Plus II, told a filming crew from a popular national news channel that she had given up the practice of copying, which she did in a previous school. When the anchor retorted that she should be ashamed talking on camera about having cheated, Manpreet promptly replied, 'I should have been ashamed when I was cheating and not when I am confessing.' This is the confidence imparted by the Tugalwala way."

Women’s Feature Service


We can use this as a model, Nirupama, for providing education, especially in countries where the excuse is lack of finance.

Although it is not what the article is about, I am keen to learn more about female foeticide and low sex ratio - why is it highest/lowest in that area?

Thank you.


My dear Leslie,

Thanks for your comments.

The low sex ratio is one of the saddest stories of contemporary India. Technology is used to conduct pre-natal sex tests and the female foetus is aborted. This practice is continuinng for some two decades and a half in various parts of India, especially the North where the female child is considered a burden. The sex ratio in Punjab where the college is located is only 780 to 1000.

There are laws against this practice yet it is being conducted with the connivance of medical practitioners.

I could send you more material on it.



The gender ratio now has got worse all over India. The main reason is the spread of the custom of dowry. Our campaign The 50 Million Missing, has a blog -- Gender Bytes on Female Genocide in India. This is our post today on India's 2011 census data that shows we are indeed a daughter-hating nation. And it is not just selective female feticide -- what this census shows is that girls under 6 years are getting killed at an alarming rate. How are they getting killed? That is what this post on Gender Bytes is about. http://tiny.cc/f9hiy

Also, the gender ratio in India gets worse as you go up the economic ladder. It is worst among the educated, well to do Indians. Why? Because they have the money and access to technology. The gender ratio is so bad among expatriate Indians, that the U.K. and Australia were forced to change their laws and ban sex-selected abortion. Canada might do the same. It is basically a "daughter-hating mindset!"

Rita Banerji www.ritabanerji.com


As I read about Baba Aya Singh Rearki College, it's brilliance is clear. Self sustaining, each student has pure confidence in her abilities- such that she can teach another. The 'each one, teach one' approach- great educational model. I am curious about other schools that use this method and if they find the same excellent results.

Here in the US, we are sorely in need of innovation techniques and this surely is a model. With little, some do so much. Loved reading about this school and the self respect and character that is being built at the school. Thanks for the post.



In reading this post, I had to read your bio- and am curious about your novel- how does it progress? You will have a readership when it's published among the World Pulse readers with a review on Pulsewire as well I hope.

I felt a little bit surprised that I haven't even heard of something of the school, but thanks for writing this article.I think these kinds of schools should be established especially in rural areas.