From my work with street orphans and vulernable children as well as women, I have come to understand that the cessation of violence is a multi-layered problem needing a comprehensive understanding of the customs and traditions of indigenous women. Many factors must line up simultaneously.
For example, from my hands on work, I know that in Livingstone, Zambia there is a tradition that if a wife cooks a chicken for her husband's dinner, he only may eat the gizzard. These are a sweet delicacy for the man only. If a wife tastes even the smallest part of the gizzard, it is the custom that he beat her up. A Rwandan friend tells me it is the same in that country.
So, that tells me that when we are teaching women to be assertive, we MUST do our research and understand each countries customs and traditions that are often, and usually, hidden from Americans, volunteers, etc.