After the adoption of the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa in July 2003, women’s and human rights organizations were concerned that the ratification and domestication of the Protocol has being slow.

African Union Member States must recognize the importance of this Protocol in ensuring African women their rights. Rape in Congo, Sudan and Uganda are rampant; Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) plagues girls and women in Ethiopia, Mali, Sierra Leone and Somalia amongst other countries; forced early marriages steal young girls of their childhood in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. These examples are just the tip of the iceberg! The violence and discrimination against African women cannot continue.

Solidarity for African Women’s Rights (SOAWR) hands red cards, yellow cards and green cards to African leaders

Countries which have received red cards for failing to sign or ratify the Protocol include:

Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Central Africa Republic, Cape Verde, Egypt, Eritrea, Malawi, Mauritania, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Seychelles, Somalia, Sao Tome & Principe, Sudan, Tunisia, Zambia

Countries which have received yellow cards for signing but failing to ratify the Protocol include:

Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Congo, DRC, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, Niger, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe

Countries which have received green cards for signing and ratifying the Protocol include:

The Comoros, Djibouti, Libya, Lesotho, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal and South Africa

Tell African leaders to get on with ratification!


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Onjhar it means that Madagascar has only signed the protocol but the Madagascan legislature has not adopted the protocol as law. In order words, the protocol remains inactive without ratification.



Greetings Fatwaz,

After reading your article I got busy. This is a travesty to all mankind and it makes me downright angry. The Protocol should be adopted, signed and ratified throughout all the Countries involved. One of the few things I can do, is to make sure the story is spread, and spread, and spread, so that it's in the face of the world. I have begun by submitting it to all the news papers I can. I will make an effort to continue till I have reached them all. It breaks my heart to think of all the pain and suffering this does to the women involved. I will do all that I can, to see that this story is out there everyday in one paper or another.

My heart goes out to these poor women and children and I am thankful that there are people like you who are there to educate the world about something they hear very little about in the Western World. Bless you for your efforts.

Sincerely from the bottom of my heart, Rose of Sharon

I spent the better part of my internship year in 2004-05 working on the ratification of the protocol here in Kenya. The mass has so far gathered no moss, even the psyche from the civil society has died. Many women are unaware of this document or even its content, and unless someone takes the time to break it down to a typical rural woman, there is little force behind it. Here in Kenya, it was seen as a push by the elite for the elite and of course culture continue to deal major blows to our work. Perhaps change of tactic in sensitizing the masses in this country is needed in order to build enough pressure for the government to ratify it, otherwise we could be even red carded and life will go on as far as the government is concerned.

Dear Fatwaz, Thanks for your information. I am curious that if a country signed a protocol and didn't apply in the country then is there any law to force them to apply in their country. How can we forced them to apply in their country as a global community? I had read many vulnerable situation of women in those above mentioned countries. Thank you Sunita

With Love and RegardsSunita Basnet

It is the duty of the countrie' s legislature or congress as it were to domesticate this law and apply it to the national law. The role of civil society is simply to advocate for this domestication by lobbying members of legislature to move for thus.



Thank you so much for your clarification. You were the first who comments in my post but where are you now? it's been a long time I did not get chance to talk with you.Missing you

With Love and RegardsSunita Basnet

Thanks for this information! I studied in South Africa for a while and my best friend is Zimbabwean. Even though I am on the other side of the world (Jamaica) I still feel connect to women from there (and all over for that matter, as we are all one family!). You seem like a phenomenal woman- I look forward to reading more.

Much peace,


It makes me very frustrated to read of this slow if not direct inaction, but is seems to be the game of choice for so many governments . It’s so easy to have the meetings and bring idea’s and laws forward , governments bath in such focus and glories . To bring them to a real working enforceable situation seems to take so much more work and very little interest . I have found find So much necessary information on this site , I appreciate the education . All the best , Tenbear