English translation by community member rhania
Research shows that GBV has implications for almost every aspect of health policies and programs, primary care to reproductive health programs (Heise et al., 1999; Guedes, 2004). Not only women are subjected to serious morbidity and mortality from physical and sexual violence, but violence also exacerbates other health conditions, including HIV transmission. The funders increasingly address the problem of violence against women as part of their portfolio of policies and health programs. In fact, a recent strategic assessment of the global work of USAID in the health plan revealed that USAID already invests substantial resources in the prevention of GBV as a public health issue and responses to it, though is the decentralized approach (Bott and Betron, 2005). In addition, the Presidential Emergency Plan for aid to the fight against AIDS (PEPFAR English) supports the reduction of violence and coercion among its five priority strategies. What is "violence based on gender"? The gender-based violence is violence for men and women, where the woman is usually the victim. It stems from unequal power relations between men and women. The violence is directed against a woman because she is a woman or it affects women disproportionately. It includes, without limitation, physical, sexual and psychological aggression ... It is also a violence perpetrated or forgiven by the state [United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Gender Theme Group] . The forms of GBV include physical, sexual and psychological / emotional within the family, sexual abuse of children, the dowryrelated violence, rape and sexual abuse, marital rape, sexharassment in the workplace and in educational institutions, forced prostitution, sexual exploitation of girls and women and female genital mutilation. However, in order to limit the scope of this document, the guidelines that follow focus on two common forms of GBV: violence by an intimate partner (physical, sexual and emotional violence) and sexual violence by a aggressor. For more information on sexual exploitation and female genital mutilation, please refer to the official directives of USAID on these two themes. If men can also be victims of sexual violence or intimate partner, such violence affects women disproportionately. For example, men and women report sexual coercion but most victims are women (CDC, 2003), and most perpetrators are male (Heise et al., 1995). As for the murders committed by an opposite-sex partner, the World Report on Violence and Health (Krug et al., 2002) indicates that between 40% and 70% of all women murdered were killed by intimate partner (male). In contrast, between 4% and 8.6% of the murdered men were killed by an intimate partner (female). In addition, a significant proportion of these killings may have been committed by women in self-defense or in response to an attack or in a chronic situation of violence from her partner. In sum, while men are more likely to be attacked by a stranger or an acquaintance, women are more likely to be attacked by someone close to them as a husband or male partner. Why "violence based on gender"? Understand violence against women, taking into account gender norms and social structures that influence women's vulnerability to violence. Women are more likely than men to be sexually assaulted or physically DEFINITION, PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS The guidelines on female genital mutilation can be viewed at the following address:http://www.usaid.gov/our_work / global_health / pop / techareas / fgc / index.html. The directives on sexual exploitation may be consulted at the following address:http://www.usaid.gov/our_work / cross-cutting_programs / wid / pubs / pd-abx-358 nal.pdf-fi. Violence based on gender 5 Section IB or to be killed by someone they know well, often by their own husband or partner. Their subordinate status, social, economic and legal, in many contexts, limited their ability to get help when violence erupts. Violence against women is rooted in gender inequality (Jewkes, 2002) and, therefore, the "gender based violence" has become a term accepted internationally to refer to physical, sexual and psychological violence against women. However, GBV can include violence against men and boys whose behavior may be perceived as outside the norms imposed by a rigid conception of masculinity (Barker and Ricardo, 2005; Betron and Gonzalez, forthcoming). Although they exist, data on GBV against men and boys are limited. In addition, there are gaps in resources, knowledge of programmatic responses, and recommendations focused on the vulnerability of men and boys to GBV. This guide focuses on GBV against women and girls specifically because they are disproportionately affected by this form of violence (see above), because there is more data available, and because 'there is a consensus on the programmatic responses about GBV against women and girls". To what extent this violence is it common? Comparative data on the prevalence of GBV are difficult to obtain because prevalence estimates vary depending on how the challenge researchers ne GBV, the questions they ask, the period observed Violence based on gender.