Principaux faits Près de 16 millions d’adolescentes mettent au monde des enfants chaque année – la plupart dans des pays à revenu faible ou moyen. On estime que 3 millions de jeunes filles âgées de 15 à 19 ans subissent des avortements à risque chaque année. Dans les pays à revenu faible ou moyen, les complications de la grossesse et de l’accouchement sont l’une des principales causes de décès pour les jeunes filles âgées de 15 à 19 ans. Les mortinaissances et les décès néonatals sont 50% plus nombreux chez les enfants de mères adolescentes que parmi ceux de femmes âgées de 20 à 29 ans. Les enfants de mères adolescentes sont plus susceptibles d’avoir un faible poids de naissances

Vue d’ensemble

Près de 16 millions de jeunes filles âgées de 15 à 19 ans et 2 millions de jeunes filles de moins de 15 ans accouchent chaque année. Au niveau mondial, une jeune fille sur cinq a déjà eu un enfant à l’âge de 18 ans. Dans les régions les plus pauvres du monde, ce chiffre passe à une sur trois.

parlons un peu de cas de la RDC Les causes

Plusieurs facteurs contribuent au phénomène des grossesses chez les adolescentes.

Dans de nombreuses sociétés, les jeunes filles subissent des pressions pour se marier et avoir des enfants tôt, ou bien peuvent avoir des perspectives d’éducation et d’emploi limitées.

Dans les pays à revenu faible et moyen, plus de 30% des filles se marient avant l’âge de 18 ans; près de 14% avant l’âge de 15 ans. En outre, les adolescentes mariées sont susceptibles de tomber enceintes et d’avoir des enfants en raison des normes sociales. Le niveau d’études est en revanche un facteur protecteur contre les grossesses précoces: plus longue a été la scolarité, moins les grossesses précoces sont nombreuses. Les taux de natalité chez les femmes peu instruites sont plus élevés que chez celles qui ont fait des études secondaires ou supérieures.

Certaines adolescentes ne savent pas comment éviter une grossesse ou sont incapables de se procurer des contraceptifs. Mais, même lorsque les contraceptifs sont largement disponibles, les adolescentes sexuellement actives sont moins susceptibles de les utiliser que les adultes.

L’éducation sexuelle fait défaut dans de nombreux pays. Une mesure mondiale de la couverture de l’éducation sexuelle estime que 36% seulement des jeunes hommes et 24% des jeunes femmes de 15 à 24 ans des pays à revenu faible ou moyen possèdent des connaissances complètes et correctes sur la façon de prévenir le VIH.

Dans certaines situations, les adolescentes ne sont pas en mesure de refuser des rapports sexuels. La violence sexuelle est répandue et touche plus particulièrement les adolescentes. Plus d’un tiers des filles disent que leur premier rapport sexuel a eu lieu sous la contrainte.

Les conséquences

Les adolescentes enceintes sont plus susceptibles que les adultes de subir des avortements à risque. Ces avortements à risque contribuent pour une grande part à des problèmes de santé durables et à des décès maternels. Avoir un enfant pendant l’adolescence a des conséquences graves pour la santé de la mère et de l’enfant, en particulier dans les régions où les systèmes de santé sont insuffisants. Dans notre pays, les adolescentes sont moins susceptibles que les adultes de recevoir des soins qualifiés avant, pendant et après l’accouchement.

Les complications de la grossesse et de l’accouchement sont parmi les principales causes de décès chez les jeunes filles âgées de 15 à 19 ans dans de nombreux pays à revenu faible ou moyen comme le notre. Les mortinaissances et les décès néonatals sont 50% plus nombreux parmi les enfants nés de mères adolescentes que parmi ceux de mères âgées de 20 à 29 ans. Les enfants de mères adolescentes sont plus susceptibles d’avoir un faible poids de naissance, ce qui peut avoir des effets à long terme sur leur santé et leur développement.

Situation mondiale

La grossesse chez les adolescentes est un facteur majeur de mortalité de la mère et de l’enfant et contribue également au cercle vicieux mauvaise santé pauvreté. La Stratégie mondiale pour la santé de la femme et de l’enfant, lancée en 2010 par le Secrétaire général de l’Organisation des Nations Unies, souligne l’importance de la santé et du bien-être des adolescentes pour la réalisation du cinquième objectif du Millénaire pour le développement concernant la réduction de la mortalité maternelle.

Action de l’OMS

En mai 2011, l’Assemblée mondiale de la Santé a adopté une résolution invitant instamment les États Membres à accélérer les mesures visant à améliorer la santé des jeunes. Elle prévoyait trois mesures précises : -revoir les politiques visant à protéger les jeunes des grossesses précoces; -assurer l’accès à la contraception et aux services de santé génésique; et -promouvoir l’accès à des informations exactes sur la santé sexuelle et génésique.

L’OMS a publié des lignes directrices sur la manière d’éviter les grossesses précoces et les effets défavorables chez les adolescentes dans les pays à revenu faible ou moyen. Préparées en partenariat avec le Fonds des Nations Unies pour la Population (UNFPA), ces lignes directrices reposent sur un examen systématique des travaux de recherche existants ainsi que sur une consultation des décideurs, des responsables de programmes et des agents de santé de première ligne. Elles contiennent des recommandations fondées sur des données factuelles que les pays peuvent prendre, en visant six objectifs principaux: -réduire le nombre de mariages avant l’âge de 18 ans; -sensibiliser l’opinion afin d’obtenir un soutien pour réduire le nombre de grossesses avant l’âge de 20 ans; -augmenter le recours à la contraception des adolescentes exposées à des grossesses non désirées; -réduire l’incidence des rapports sexuels sous la contrainte chez les adolescentes; -réduire le nombre d’avortements à risque chez les adolescentes; -accroître le recours à des soins qualifiés avant, pendant et après l’accouchement chez les adolescentes

merci

English translation by community member Camila

Teen pregnancy

Main facts Close to 16 million teenage girls give birth each year- the majority are from countries with low and average incomes. It is estimated that 3 million young girls between the ages 15 and 19 suffer from risky abortions each year. In countries in which the income is low or average, complications due to pregnancy and birth delivery are one of the principle causes of death for young girls between the ages 15 and 19. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths are 50% higher among babies of teenage mothers than among women between the ages of 20 and 29. Babies of young mothers are more susceptible to have a low birth weight.

Overview

Close to 16 million young girls between the ages 15 and 19, and 2 million young girls below the age of 15 give birth each year. At the global level, one young girl out of five has already had a child at the age of 18. In the poorest regions of the world, this statistic changes from one out of three.

Let’s talk a little about the case in DRC Causes:

Several factors contribute to this phenomenon of teen pregnancy.

In many societies, young girls suffer from the pressure to marry and to have children early, or they can have educational opportunities but with limited employment options.

In countries where the income is low and average, more than 30% of girls marry before the age of 18; close to 14% marry before the age of 15. In addition, young married girls are susceptible to become pregnant and to have children because of social norms. Education, on the other hand, is a factor against early pregnancy: the longer adolescents spend receiving an education, the less numerous there are early pregnancies. The birth rates among women with little education are much higher than those who have completed secondary school or have undergone superior studies.

Some young girls do not know how to avoid getting pregnant or are incapable of obtaining contraceptives. However, although contraceptives are largely unavailable, sexually active teenagers are less likely to use them than adults.

The failure of teaching good sexual education is numerous in many countries. A world study on the coverage of sex education estimates that only 36% of young men and 24% of young women between the ages 15 and 24 in countries with low or average income, possess complete and correct knowledge on how to prevent HIV. In certain situations, adolescents are not able to refuse in engaging in sexual relationships. Sexual violence is widespread and affects the most, in particular, adolescents. More than one third of girls say that their first sexual relationship has occurred under pressure.

The consequences

Teenage pregnant girls are more susceptible to suffer from risky abortions than adults. These risky abortions contribute to a large amount of lasting health problems and death for the mothers. Having a baby during adolescence has grave consequences for the mother’s and baby’s health, in particular in regions where health services are insufficient. In our country, the adolescents are less susceptible than the adults to receive quality care during and after giving birth.

Complications due to pregnancy and giving birth are some of the main causes of death among young girls between the ages 15 and 19 in many countries in which the income is low or average, like ours. Stillbirths and neonatal births are 50% higher among babies born from adolescent mothers, among who, are between the ages of 20 and 29. Babies born from adolescent mothers are more susceptible to have a low birth weight, which can cause long-term affects on their health and development.

International situation

Teen pregnancy is a major factor of the mother and child’s death, and equally contributes to the vicious circle of bad health and poverty. The international strategy for the health of a mother and child, launched in 2010 by the general Secretary from the organization of United Nations, emphasizes the importance and wellbeing of adolescents, which fulfills the fifth Millennium objective for the development concerning the reduction of maternal deaths.

Measures taken by WHO

In May of 2011, the World Health Organization adopted a solution urging the member states to speed up measures to improve the health of young people. It provided three specific measures: -review policies to protect teenage pregnancies; -ensure access to contraceptives and reproductive health services, and -promote access to accurate information on sexual and reproductive health

WHO established guidelines for adolescents from countries with low and average incomes, on how to avoid early pregnancy and the negative effects it would have on them. Prepared in partnership with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), these guidelines are based on a systematic review of existing research and consultation on policy makers, program managers, and health workers. It contains recommendations based on given facts that countries can use, targeting six main objectives: -reduce the number of marriages for those under the age of 18; -spread awareness in order to gain support for the reduction of pregnancies before the age of 20; -increase the number of ways one can obtain contraceptives for adolescents exposed to non desired pregnancies; -reduce the amount of situations in which having sex is pressured among adolescents; -reduce the amount of risky abortions among adolescents; -increase the amount of recourses for obtaining quality caregivers before, during, and after giving birth among adolescents

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Teen pregnancy

Main facts Close to 16 million teenage girls give birth each year- the majority are from countries with low and average incomes. It is estimated that 3 million young girls between the ages 15 and 19 suffer from risky abortions each year. In countries in which the income is low or average, complications due to pregnancy and birth delivery are one of the principle causes of death for young girls between the ages 15 and 19. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths are 50% higher among babies of teenage mothers than among women between the ages of 20 and 29. Babies of young mothers are more susceptible to have a low birth weight.

Overview

Close to 16 million young girls between the ages 15 and 19, and 2 million young girls below the age of 15 give birth each year. At the global level, one young girl out of five has already had a child at the age of 18. In the poorest regions of the world, this statistic changes from one out of three.

Let’s talk a little about the case in DRC Causes:

Several factors contribute to this phenomenon of teen pregnancy.

In many societies, young girls suffer from the pressure to marry and to have children early, or they can have educational opportunities but with limited employment options.

In countries where the income is low and average, more than 30% of girls marry before the age of 18; close to 14% marry before the age of 15. In addition, young married girls are susceptible to become pregnant and to have children because of social norms. Education, on the other hand, is a factor against early pregnancy: the longer adolescents spend receiving an education, the less numerous there are early pregnancies. The birth rates among women with little education are much higher than those who have completed secondary school or have undergone superior studies.

Some young girls do not know how to avoid getting pregnant or are incapable of obtaining contraceptives. However, although contraceptives are largely unavailable, sexually active teenagers are less likely to use them than adults.

The failure of teaching good sexual education is numerous in many countries. A world study on the coverage of sex education estimates that only 36% of young men and 24% of young women between the ages 15 and 24 in countries with low or average income, possess complete and correct knowledge on how to prevent HIV. In certain situations, adolescents are not able to refuse in engaging in sexual relationships. Sexual violence is widespread and affects the most, in particular, adolescents. More than one third of girls say that their first sexual relationship has occurred under pressure.

The consequences

Teenage pregnant girls are more susceptible to suffer from risky abortions than adults. These risky abortions contribute to a large amount of lasting health problems and death for the mothers. Having a baby during adolescence has grave consequences for the mother’s and baby’s health, in particular in regions where health services are insufficient. In our country, the adolescents are less susceptible than the adults to receive quality care during and after giving birth.

Complications due to pregnancy and giving birth are some of the main causes of death among young girls between the ages 15 and 19 in many countries in which the income is low or average, like ours. Stillbirths and neonatal births are 50% higher among babies born from adolescent mothers, among who, are between the ages of 20 and 29. Babies born from adolescent mothers are more susceptible to have a low birth weight, which can cause long-term affects on their health and development.

International situation

Teen pregnancy is a major factor of the mother and child’s death, and equally contributes to the vicious circle of bad health and poverty. The international strategy for the health of a mother and child, launched in 2010 by the general Secretary from the organization of United Nations, emphasizes the importance and wellbeing of adolescents, which fulfills the fifth Millennium objective for the development concerning the reduction of maternal deaths.

Measures taken by WHO

In May of 2011, the World Health Organization adopted a solution urging the member states to speed up measures to improve the health of young people. It provided three specific measures: -review policies to protect teenage pregnancies; -ensure access to contraceptives and reproductive health services, and -promote access to accurate information on sexual and reproductive health

WHO established guidelines for adolescents from countries with low and average incomes, on how to avoid early pregnancy and the negative effects it would have on them. Prepared in partnership with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), these guidelines are based on a systematic review of existing research and consultation on policy makers, program managers, and health workers. It contains recommendations based on given facts that countries can use, targeting six main objectives: -reduce the number of marriages for those under the age of 18; -spread awareness in order to gain support for the reduction of pregnancies before the age of 20; -increase the number of ways one can obtain contraceptives for adolescents exposed to non desired pregnancies; -reduce the amount of situations in which having sex is pressured among adolescents; -reduce the amount of risky abortions among adolescents; -increase the amount of recourses for obtaining quality caregivers before, during, and after giving birth among adolescents

thank you

Princesse Muluzinyere, Merci pour votre récit sur les grossesses chez les adolescents. C’est vrai que cette réalité doit changer. Je pense que ces filles doivent reconnaître l’importance d’avoir une éducation, malgré tout, ça doit être difficile à convaincre les filles de l’importance d’une éducation quand il n’y a pas des emplois. J’espère que ces solutions que vous avez citées peuvent devenir une réalité dans votre pays. Je vous encourage à continuer d’écrire!

-Camila